In our country today, there are some harmful traditional practices that are still ongoing till date in some communities. Most importantly against women (Girl child) this practices infringes on the right of a girl child. It is considered harmful to girls and women and the violation of human right. It has a lot of negative effect on the girl child and women generally.
Female Gender mutilation is one among the harmful practices. What Is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Female genital mutilation is a procedure that involves partial or completely removing the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organ whenever for non- medical reason.
Female genital mutilation also known as female genital cutting (FGC) in Nigeria account for the most female genital cutting/mutilation (FGM/C) cases worldwide. The practice is a customarily a family tradition that the young female of age 0-15 would experience.
Nationally, 27% of Nigeria women between the age of 15 and 49 were victim of (FGM) as at 2012. In the last thirty (30) years, prevalence of the practice has decrease by half in part of Nigeria. In May 2015 the former president Good luck Jonathan signed a federal law banning female genital mutilation (FGM).
The societies who practice female genital mutilation look at it as an integral part of their tradition and cultural identity or some time as religious obligation. The practices carried out by traditional circumcisers without proper knowledge of human anatomy and medicine.
Most so they have no knowledge of Aseptic techniques or infection prevention and control. Consequently the following are effects of girl child or woman circumcision.
1. Excessive bleeding (Hemorrhage)
3. Genital tissue swelling
5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) if done in group.
6. Urination problems
7. Impaired wound healing.
9. Psychological consequences
10. Menstral problems
12. Decrease sexual pleasure and desire.
13. Pain during sex
14. Anorgasmia: reduce frequency or absence of organism to mention but a few.
Types Of Female Genital Mutilation
About four type of female genital mutilation has been practice in Nigeria.
1. Type I Clitoridectomy: removing the clitoral hode and at least part of the clitoris.
2. Type II Sunna: removing the clitoris and part of the labial minora.
3. Type III Infibulations: removing the clitoris, labia minora, labial majora. This also involves stitching the vargina opening with minuscule hole for urination and Menstral bleeding.
4. Type IV other unclassified form of FGM may involves pricking, stretching cauterization, or inserting herbs into the vargina.
Lesson From Mali
There is a saying thus, it takes a village to raise a child but conversation with a community in Mali suggest that it will take family, community and government support to end female genital mutilation for good. Grandparents, mothers, fathers and mother – in – law all have their role to play.
Religious leader who can help dispel the myth that FGM is a religious necessity.
The following will help to end FGM
1. Challenge the discriminatory reasons (FGM) is practiced such as reasons that it control female sexuality and preserve virginity.
2. Change tradition with support of older generation.
3. Educate the girl on their right to decide what happen to their body.
4. Public enlightment on the risk and reality of FGM.
5. Spread understanding that religion does not demand female genital cutting (through religious leaders)
6. Full implementation of the May 2015 law that ban FGM
7. Collaborating with some organization like WHO, UNICEF, International Federation of Gynecology and obstetrics, African Union as well as justice development and peace movement (JDPM) of Catholic Dioceses of Oyo who are making effort to end FGM in Nigeria.